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Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Versus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin for Ovulation Induction in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients Undergoing Intrauterine Insemination: A Randomised Controlled Trial

DOI: 10.1142/S2661318219500075

Fertility and Reproduction, Vol. 01, No. 02, June 2019 – 2019-04-06

Anh N. Ha1,*, Toan D. Pham1,2, Vinh Q. Dang1,2, Lan N. Vuong1,3, Tuong M. Ho1,2

Published: 5 April, 2019

Author information


Gonadotropins have been recommended to improve ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with anovulatory infertility and clomiphene citrate (CC) resistance. However, this could increase the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) triggering could significantly reduce the risk of OHSS in patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation. However, data on the use of GnRHa in intrauterine insemination (IUI) is limited. This study compared the effectiveness of GnRHa and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for ovulation induction in PCOS patients undergoing IUI.
This non-inferiority, single-centre, randomised controlled trial was conducted at IVFMD, My Duc Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam between April 2016 and May 2018. PCOS patients aged 18–37 years with CC resistance and ≤ 3 developing (≥ 16 mm) follicles on trigger day after stimulation with gonadotropins were eligible. Those with uterine abnormalities or tubal damage or inseminated with frozen semen were excluded. Triptorelin 0.1 mg or hCG 5000 IU was used when there was ≥ 1 follicle of ≥ 17 mm. IUI was performed at 36 hours after triggering. Primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy. Secondary outcomes were clinical pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, miscarriage and OHSS.
A total of 380 patients were randomised (190 per group). Treatment groups had similar characteristics at baseline. Ongoing
pregnancy rate was 23.7% in the GnRHa group versus 25.3% in the hCG group (Relative risk 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.66–1.34; p = 0.81). Secondary outcome parameters were also not significantly different between the two groups. There were two cases of mild OHSS in the hCG group and none in the GnRHa group.
0.1 mg triptorelin was non-inferior to 5000 IU hCG IU in PCOS patients undergoing ovulation induction by hMG followed by IUI with respect to pregnancy outcomes.


Ovulation Induction; Intrauterine Insemination; Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist; Human Chorionic Gonadotropin; Ongoing Pregnancy